"

" "

(5)

- 7 -

:

1

2

3 -

4

5

 

1 -

- 8 -

. . ɡ ɡ !! ʺ " " ʡ ǡ Ρ ɡ ɡ . .

- 9 -

ϡ !! . :

(1) !! " 000 . : 000 " !!

!

- 10 -

ǡ !!

(2) ǡ " () . 000 " !! " ". .

ʡ !

- 11 -

. !! ɡ " . ." ( 20/30-31 ). " . " ( 18/36 ). " " ( 1/1 ) .

- 12 -

!! . Ρ !! !! (1)

ɡ :

(1) Bruce M. Metzger " " .

- 13 -

•  " " .

" term . ǡ ʡ ǿ . ".

" . ( ) " .

•  :

- 14 -

" ο " " ".

•  " . 000 - ".

•  . . (1866 - 1946) " 000 000 " .

" " : " ": " ". " Ρ ǡ penniless . ".

- 15 -

" " .

•  " . " !!

•  ɡ " . . " .

" " !!

" " .

" .

- 16 -

. . ֡ 000 " .

" ѡ ".

" . . 000 . . ߡ " !!

- 17 -

2

!! ϡ :" : . : : . ." ( 22/4246 ). ! .

" : " ( 6/4 ). " : " ( 1 8/6 ). " " ( 10/36 ) .

- 18 -

" : . " ( 21/11 ).

:

(1) : " " " . : : : . . " ( 8/5359 ) .

" " " " .

- 19 -

" " " " ( 3/14 ) 2000 ɡ (2) .

(2) : " : . . " ( 4/12-14 ). ѡ ɡ " . " ( 14/19 ) " " ( 1/4 )

(2) " " .

- 20 -

ɡ ϡ ɡ " " ( 6/68 ) " . " ( 8/12 ).

(3) : " . . ǡ . . . . " ( 3/16 ). . " : . " ( 13/16 ).

- 21 -

(4) : " . " ( 11/31 ) " ! " ( 11/32 ) " : ! " ( 12/6 ).

͡ " " (11/11) " . 000 : . 000 . " ( 1/2634 ) .

" -

- 22 -

. ǡ " ( 1/1-4 ) .

:

•  " " .

•  " " .

•  " ". .

•  ǡ .

•  ǡ .

•  . .

- 23 -

•  .

5 : ʡ ѡ ɡ : " . : : : . : . : . . . . . . . : ! " ( 1/4-14 ).

- 24 -

•  ͡ ɡ " " ϡ ǡ ֡ " " ( 1/18 ) ȡ .

•  ͡ ϡ " : " .

•  " " .

•  . ϡ ϡ ʡ . " . . .

- 25 -

. " ( 2/6-11 ).

" " ( 2 8/9 ) " " ( 2/9 ) .

•  ʡ .

•  .

•  ɡ .

ڿ .

- 26 -

1

(1) ɡ ɡ ! :

•  ɡ ɡ ! ǡ .

•  ɡ ɡ ϡ ǡ !! " " .

•  ɡ .

- 27 -

•  ǡ ɡ .

•  ɡ () (3) .

•  .

(2) : ѡ ѡ ɡ ̡ ӡ " . " ( 13/4 ) ( 17/191/13 )

(3) 8 : " " 15 " " 10 " " 9 " " .

- 28 -

ѡ . . .

" " ! " " " " ! " " . " " " : ." ( 7/14 ) " : " ( 1/23 ) .

(3) : ǡ " : ! .

- 29 -

. ! : . " ( 1/2830 ) . ʡ " ! " ( 1/42- 43 ) .

! : ! ! : ! ɡ " " " " !!

ѡ ɡ

- 30 -

. ɡ . " . " ( 1/3133 ). " ". ̡ !! 700 " : " ( 7/14 ). " : . " ( 1/35 ). :

- 31 -

() " " ! ϡ ! " " " ".

() ӡ " " ! ǡ ! !! ɺ ! !! (*)

(*) !!! . ǡ !! ! " . . . " . " ( 2 /21 23 ) . ǡ ɡ !! !! . !! ǿ ѡ .

- 32 -

2 -

ǡ ʡ :

" : ! . " ( 1/3945 ) . !!

- 33 -

() ѡ ڡ " "!! Ϳ! ѡ !

( 1/20 ) " "! .

- 34 -

" " .

!!

3

ɡ ɡ !! ѡ .

(1) :

" . : . : .

- 35 -

: . : . : . . . . . " ( 2/819 ). ֡ ǡ !! " : . . " ( 8/23 ). " . " ( 3/31 ).

- 36 -

(2) :

ޡ . " . : 000 . : . " ( 2/1-12 ).

. !! ! " " .

- 37 -

(3) :

" . . . : . . . : . . " ( 2/2536 ).

"

- 38 -

. . . " ( 2/3638 ).

ʡ . ! . .

! ϡ ǡ ! ! ǡ

- 39 -

! ! ! ! (4)

4

ɡ

(4) " " 20 : " " . . . : " . . " !!

- 40 -

" . . . . . " ( 12/6-8 ). " " ( 1/1 ) " . . " ( 1/18 ) " " ( 11/27 ). .

ǡ ǡ .

 

- 41 -

: " : . 000 : . : .... : . : .... : . : .... : . : : . : . . " ( 5/27-44 ). .

" 000 ()

 

- 42 -

. " ( 5/16-20 ).

ӡ " " ( 2/1-2 ) ɡ " ." ( 20/ 31 ) " . " ( 14/14 ).

5

 

. " . . " ( 40/28 )

 

- 43 -

" " ( 42/5 ). ϡ " . . " ( 44/24 ).

ޡ ǡ . .

͡ . " . . " ( 2/7 ) . :

•  .

•  .

 

- 44 -

(5) :

•  .

•  000 .

Ǻ ѿ ǡ . . !!

(5) " " 27 " . 000 " " . : " ! " . . : " " . " " " " !!

 

- 45 -

͡ ʡ !! " . " ( 2/9-11 ). ͡ " . " ( 3/9 ) " " ( 1/2 ) " . " ( 1/2 ) " : . . " ( 1/1617 ).

ɺ " .

 

- 46 -

: . . . " ( 9/6- 7 ). ǡ ǡ ǡ " 000 " ( 2/7- 8 ). !! !! ( 14/19-22 ). Ϳ ɺ !!

6

 

 

ȡ ʡ ɡ . ͡ ǡ

 

- 47 -

. ͡ " " ( 1/142/1819/12 ) " " ( 2/23 ). ݡ ѡ . . .

" " ( 9/412/25 ) " " ( 22/18 ) " . " ( 2/24 ) " . " ( 2/25 ). " . " ( 24/25 ) " ." ( 13/19 ) " ." ( 14/29 ).

 

- 48 -

" . . . . " ( 16/24 ).

" : ! ! : ! " ( 1/48-49 ) " : ǻ : . : . . : ! " " . " ( 4/16-1929 ) " . " ( 6/64 ). " " ( 13/11 ).

 

- 49 -

" : . . " ( 11/1-2 ) . " : . . : : " ( 14/13-14 ). " : . " ( 14/30 ).

" . " ( 16/21 )

 

- 50 -

" "( 20/19 ) " " ( 26/3214/28 ) " ! " ( 6/62 ) " : . " ( 7/33 ). " . " ( 16/30 ) .

ɺ ǡ .

7

 

ǡ " : . " ( 117/21 ) ( 212 ). ʺ

 

- 51 -

. " . 000 : . . . " ( 8/52- 55 ). " : . . : . " ( 7/13-14 ). " 000 : . : 000 000 : . . : . . : 000

 

- 52 -

000 : 000 : ". " . . ǿ . " : . : . : : . " " : . : " ( 11/1-44 ).

ޡ

 

- 53 -

" . . ". ! . . . .

 

8

 

 

ʡ .

 

- 54 -

" : : . " ( 7/22 ). . :

1 " . " ( 4/46-54 ). " . . ! . "( 4/38- 39 ).

2 " . . . " ( 5/1-9 ).

 

- 55 -

" ! . " ( 9/6-7 ). ̡ " . " ( 8/5-13 ). " . . . " (12/13).

3 ɺ ϡ " : ! ! : . : . . : ! . " (4/33-36). " . : ! " ( 9/23-33 ) .

 

- 56 -

" . : ! . 000 : : . . 000 " ( 8/27-32 ). ( 7/24-30 ). " . : . " ( 13/11-13 ). " . " ( 17/17- 18 ).

 

- 57 -

4 " : . : . ." ( 8/2- 3 ) " : ǻ. : . . " ( 17/12-14 ) .

5 " : ǻ. " ( 9/27-31 ) ( 8/2-26 ) " . : . . . " ( 9/6- 7 ). !! ǡ " . " ( 20/ 34-3910/46-5218/35-43 ).

 

- 58 -

6 " " : . " ( 9/21 ). . : !000 " ( 8/43-48 ). " : ǻ. . . " ( 7/33-35 ). " " ( 14/1-4 ).

ɡ " . " ( 20/30 ) " . " ( 21/25 ).

 

- 59 -

" . . " ( 14/35-36 ). " . . ." ( 1/32-34 ). " . " ( 15/30 ). " " ( 8/16 ). " . . " ( 4/24 ). " . " ( 12/15 ). " . " ( 30/15 ). " . " ( 21/14 ). " . " ( 3/10 ). " . " ( 7/21 ).

- 60 -

 

9 -

 

 

" . " ( 6/19 ) " . " ( 14/36 ) " . ! " ( 6/56 ) " " ( 1/4 ). ǡ . .

" . " ( 28/18 ).

 

- 61 -

" . " ( 3/35 ) " . " ( 5/19 )." . " ( 5/20 ) " . " ( 5/21 ). :

•  " . . : . . " ( 14/19-21 6/13-219/10-176/1-14 ) .

•  " .

 

- 62 -

. . " ( 15/36-39 ).

ݡ . . ޡ ! ! .

•  " . . . : . ! : ! . . :

 

- 63 -

. : . 000 . : ! . " ( 14/25-33 ).

! ѡ ̡ " . " ( 6/21 ). " : ! . " .

•  " . 000

 

- 64 -

. " " : . . . " ( 4/39 ) " " " " ( 4/41 ) " : ! " ( 8/24-26 ) " ! " ( 8/25 ).

" . " . " " " " ( 4/39 ) " : 000 ! " ( 9/ 25 ) .

" : . . : . . 000 . : . " ( 2/7-10 ) .

 

- 65 -

" 000 " ǡ ǡ ޡ . " " .

•  " : . : . . . . .

 

- 66 -

: . " ( 5/4-8 ) .

ޡ ɡ ɡ . ѡ .

•  " : : . : : . : . . " ( 17/24-27 ) .

 

- 67 -

ѡ ǡ ! ѡ ɡ ѡ ! .

•  " " ( 24/51 ) " . " ( 1/9 ). .

ɡ .

- 68 -

 

10

 

 

ɡ " . " ( 13/1 ) " . . " ( 22/37-38 ) " : . . " ( 13/34 ) " . " ( 15/12 ) " . " ( 15/17 ). " . . " ( 5/44 ). ֡

 

- 69 -

!!

" . " ( 15/13 ). ǡ " . . . " ( 12/1921 ). " . " ( 11/29 ).

" " ( 23/34 ). ݡ " . ! " ( 26/52-53 )

 

- 70 -

" : ! . " ( 22/51 ). " . . " ( 4/29-30 ) " . . " ( 8/59 ).

ݡ " " ( 2/14 ) " . . . . " ( 14/27 ) " ǡ " ( 2/14 ) " . : " ( 16/33 ) .

 

- 71 -

" : . " ( 10/5 ) " " ( 10/15 ). " : : ! . " ( 9/54- 56 ).

Ϳ ǡ !!

 

11

 

 

ɡ " " ( 8/3 ) " ǡ . " ( 4/15 ) " . " ( 13/5 ).

 

- 72 -

" " ( 7/26 ) " " ( 25/21 ) " " ( 12/22 ).

á ɡ . . " " ( 8/46 ) ʡ ʡ . . " . " ( 11/8 ). . " " ( 8/3 )

 

- 73 -

. Ӻ " . 000 . . . " ( 45/2 8-9 ).

12

 

 

͡ ( 19/26 ) ӡ " : ! :

 

- 74 -

. : . : : . " ( 23/3943 ). !

ȡ ʡ ʡ ޡ " . 000 . . : . " ( 27/45 5154 ).

" . " ( 21:16 )

 

- 75 -

" " ( 20/19 ). " . " ( 24/51 ) " . : . " ( 1/911 ). " : . . . " ( 28/18-20 ). " . . " ( 16/1920 ).

 

- 76 -

. " . . . . " ( 1/17- 18 ).

13

 

 

" . . . . " ( 12/12 ) . " ! " ( 8/34 ) " . " ( 7/25 ) . " ! " ( 9/14 )

 

- 77 -

" " ( 11/1820 ).

ơ ɡ ɡ " ǿ " ( 8/29 ) " ! ! ! ! " ( 1/24 ). ! !!

 

- 78 -

" : " ( 12/5 ). .

 

14

ڡ :

(1) : " " ( 3/16 ) " " ( 1/10 ) " . " ( 3/22 ) " : . " ( 3/17 ). ʡ " " " ".

 

- 79 -

(2) : " . . "( 17/1-2 ) " . " ( 9/3 ) " . " ( 9/30-31 ). " : . . . " ( 9/5-6 ). " : . . " ( 5:17 ). " " ( 9/34- 35 ).

 

- 80 -

" . : . . " ( 21/16-18 ).

(3) : ͡ " . " " . : . " " : . : . : . " ( 121/23 28-30 ).

ɺ . ɺ !!